From Whole Body to Pant Size in Only Seconds

Within 30 seconds after a 17 second Whole Body scan, new Cyberware software evaluates the scan data for key reference points, automatically extracts a set of tailoring measurements and calculates correct clothing sizes for the subject.

As part of an ongoing project for the Defense Logistics Agency's Apparel Research Network (ARN), Cyberware has spent the past year developing the software that evaluates Whole Body scan data for key measurement reference points, automatically extracts a set of tailoring measurements, and calculates clothing sizes for the subject. This evaluation is completed in only 30 seconds after the 17 second scan.

The project's overall goal is to improve the way the military delivers uniforms to personnel without requiring huge inventories or several alterations for good fit.

To test this scenario Cyberware recently scanned 320 US Marines and automatically calculated sizes for pants and jackets. It was possible to scan at the rate of one person per minute, including time for positioning in the Whole Body scanner. Then with one push of a button the scan and evaluation were automatic. By repeated scanning at intervals after recruitment, factors such as changes in body shape and mass during and after training can be assessed.

The excellent results of this test are moving the project into its final phases, which include enhancement of measurement and size selection procedures, hardware optimization and porting to the NT operating system.

The research also opens possibilities for civilian clothing design and fitting.

The Cyberware booth at SIGGRAPH '98 in Orlando will display the – Whole Body & Model 15 scanners – See demonstrations of 3D scanners and software in Booth 1311.

Building Better Bike Helmets

To correct the hit-or-miss sizing of children's bicycle helmets, a team from Anthropology Research Project Inc. took a 3D look at the shape of children's heads.

Studies show that helmet use can reduce the number and severity of head injuries from bicycle accidents, but many injuries still occur when the helmet moves on the child's head or is knocked off on impact. To make more effective helmets, designers and engineers need a good anthropometric database that shows how helmets should be sized and shaped. The Anthropology Research Project study, sponsored by the George Snively Research Foundation, set out to build the necessary database.

The team packed a Cyberware 3030 Color 3D scanner and a Silicon Graphics workstation into a van and went across country to scan the heads of more than a thousand US school children aged 2 to 18. They used a stratified random sampling plan that took into account sex, race, age, and geographical distribution across six regions of the US.

As a way of summarizing the 3D data, the team created a plane for each 3D scan (see above) passing just above the child's eyebrows and ears, representing roughly the area covered by a bicycle helmet. From the center of the plane, the team constructed several thousand vectors intersecting the head surface at 3-degree intervals constituting shape data to make 3D head forms.

The Anthropology Research Project now has four head forms that should help bicycle helmet manufacturers create better headgear for children.

In addition, the organization sees that the 3D database can prove useful for further projects.

For more information about this study contact Bruce Bradtmiller at ARP—See Cyberware Service Center listing on page 4.

Distributor News

Japan Tech Services

Whole Body Enters Virtual Reality
Cyberware distributor Japan Tech Services (JTS) has supplied a Cyberware Whole Body scanner and Polyworks software to Gifu University for a Virtual System Laboratory-an installation for creative graduate-school-led R&D in virtual reality (VR). The laboratory aims to analyze and fuse many phenomena in 4-dimensional real and virtual spaces using VR technology.

JTS has offered high-tech equipment and services since 1972 to a wide variety of Japanese customers. For over ten years Cyberware scanners have been distributed by JTS for a variety of uses such as VR representation of historical items at Tokyo University Museum, human interface investigations at NTT Yokosuka, and the Japan Society of Human Face Analysis at Tokyo University.

JTS also provides 3D scanning services for TV, movie, animation, industrial and museum data collection.

Service Center News


The $8.4 Million T. Rex Named Sue
Did the tyrannosaurus rex really walk upright and terrorize prehistoric neighborhoods, or did it have its big nose close to the ground to sniff out carrion that other beasts had killed?

Researchers who debate these views may gain insight from Sue, a complete T. Rex skeleton recently acquired by Chicago's Field Museum for $8.4 million. The museum wants to share the skeleton with researchers all over the world but is not eager to ship these valuable bones parcel post.

The solution: Call in Cyberware service center Scansite ( to scan each bone. Scansite used either linear or cylindrical scans to capture the bones to resolutions as fine as 0.125 mm, allowing researchers to see details such as minute hairline cracks and muscle insertion points. The scans provide a way to work with the bones that in some ways is even better than the real thing. Virtual 3D bones can be sectioned at will, for instance. Scansite has worked with a number of museums to preserve virtual copies of artifacts-an especially valuable approach for artifacts such as Native American baskets that deteriorate over time.

Cyber_Site Europe

The Most Puzzling Sculptures
When two Israeli inventors saw a birthday cake being cut, they had a 3D inspiration. They passed the puzzling idea to Philip Sanchez of Andrew Lloyd Webber's UK-based Really Useful Group, who brought in Cyber_Site Europe for Cyberware 3D scanning services ( Now 3D Sculpture Puzzles are available to the world.

Each puzzle consists of die-cut layers of card that you stack onto a base to build the puzzle vertically rather than horizontally. The result is a 3D sculpture so striking it's an ornament in itself. So far, the Really Useful Group has recreated the Venus De Milo, Rodin's The Kiss, a globe of the world with the countries in relief, and the head of an Egyptian pharaoh. Many more 3D Sculpture Puzzles are under development.

Cyber_Site Europe helps create the puzzles by using Cyberware scanners to scan the 3D conceptual models and provide data for surfacing using Imageware's Surfacer software. Data describing the 2D slices in then passed to a laser cutting specialist, who completes the manufacturing process.

Passing the Half-Million Milestone

A venerable Cyberware scanner installed in 1991 at KLM Laboratories, Inc., a foot prosthesis manufacturer in southern California has now made more than 500,000 scans. KLM's Scott Marshall reports that the scanner still has its original motor, camera, mirrors, and motion platform. What's more, the only downtime has been due to user error in servicing the system, and repairs were quick. That's good, Scott notes, because KLM uses the system to scan foot molds every day from 6 A.M. until 11 P.M.

Below Knee (BK) Scanner Build

Detail drawings are complete and parts are about to be ordered to build a series of BK scanners for the VA. The BK scans the residual limb of an amputee in about nine seconds, gathering thousands of points. Five systems will be manufactured in a new effort to help the amputee get better fitting prostheses. The system will be operated via a new NT based software tool and takes advantage of advances in optics and manufacturing techniques.

Scanning Help Now Available for Burn Victims

Three-dimensional anthropometry has furthered the progress of rehabilitation engineering and wound healing sciences. 3D scanning for burn masks has proven to work better than previous methods and is now available for Dayton, Ohio-based Total Contact, Inc (TCI). Clear plastic masks known as transparent facial orthosis (TFO) help reduce scarring from facial burns, but the masks must fit the shape of the face perfectly.

The Cyberware 3D scanning method developed by TCI offers a great way to get the right fit, according to a study funded by the International Association of Firefighters. The study compared the fit of masks made using the TCI approach to that of masks based on conventional plaster molding. Even though highly skilled prosthetists made the conventional masks, they could not keep the plaster from deforming the soft tissue of the face. The results demonstrated that the TCI approach produces a better-fitting mask, the TCI process is faster, and TCI process is easier on the patient. Using non-contact 3D scanning, masks can be made at an earlier stage of healing, which improves results.

After a patient is scanned, the images are edited to smooth existing scars, then formatted for replication as a mold. The mold is used to vacuum-form a plastic mask through which the healing process can be observed.

In March of this year, TCI presented the company's system at the American Burn Association Conference in Chicago and is now working with medical centers in the US and Canada to establish a TCI system for each major burn facility. Jennifer J. Whitestone (, a key member of the original research team, is president of Total Contact, Inc. For more information, visit

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