Organization of this User Guide

This User Guide is divided into these sections; Safety, Site Preparation, minimum System Requirements, USB-based Installation and SCSI-based Installation, this Introduction, Operation, Scan Preparation, several Tutorials, a Reference section, Maintenance and Troubleshooting.

A suggested approach to using CyScan is to finish reading this Introduction, especially the Setup portion. Next, read the Safety section and the tutorials, duplicating the examples using CyScan. Refer to the Site Preparation, Operation, and Reference sections as necessary to understand the parameters of the various algorithms, menu selections, and interface items.

Software & Hardware Setup

By default, CyScan should be installed into the C:\Program Files\Cyberware\CyScan directory.

For information on how to install CyScan and the supporting software, please refer to the software installation instructions for CyScan ONLY, for a USB-based scanner or for a SCSI-based scanner.

Conventions

CyScan was written to run on a graphics workstation, and uses the OpenGL graphics library to display objects. It uses the Tk widget toolkit for buttons and Tcl command interpreter as a text front-end to interpret user commands. Tk and Tcl are both written by John Ousterhout of the University of California at Berkeley, and are freely distributed from a number of FTP sites.

For more information on the various graphical user interface elements, please refer to the Interface Overview.

Capabilities

The capabilities of the software may be divided into two general categories:

  1. Scanning:
    These commands interface with the scanning hardware. They acquire images and aid in setting up the hardware to capture data with appropriate parameters.
  2. Display:
    The scanned data may be displayed on a graphics display device. On some hosts the display software is also capable of some analysis and manipulation.

The Basics

This section explains some basic concepts, which will be helpful in understanding the software, menu commands and associated terminology.

The software is developed in conjunction with Cyberware scanners, therefore much of the software reflects the design of the scanner. The software has been developed with what might be called a toolbox approach. A toolbox contains many tools, each with a certain use. Most tasks require the use of many tools, each contributing its own function to the task at hand. Each software tool of the CyScan software has been designed to perform as simple a function as possible. While many tools do very little, the use of them in the proper sequence results in a very powerful and flexible system. We hope that their individual simplicity also makes the CyScan software easier to use and understand.

Scan File Basics

The software is intended to handle the images of 3D surfaces acquired by the Cyberware scanners or converted into a format that is similar to that produced by Cyberware scanners. Understanding these images and their representation are fundamental concepts.

All Cyberware scanners acquire 3D surface information as a series of contours. A contour of a face might look like a profile, and a contour of a hand might look like a slice. These contours are, by convention, defined as a series of coordinate values at regular intervals. The depth, or range, values are named Z, while the intervals which lie along the contour are called Y. With Cyberware scanners, each Y interval is assigned one and only one Z value. This is fundamental to the design of the CyScan software.

Typically each contour is divided into 450 Y intervals, and each assigned a Z (depth) value. Portions of this contour may contain no value at all. These are places where there was no visible surface. These points will have a value of 0 and are known as void. Some points on the contour may have had too much reflection, so their Z value will be much greater than the normal surface. These points are called spikes or anomalous data.

Non-void values will usually be expressed in microns so that integer values can be used. Microns are easily converted to millimeters by placing a decimal point 3 places in from the right.

Each contour is a two-dimensional object. To define a three-dimensional surface these contours are scanned side-by-side across the subject surface. This forms a perfectly regular grid of Z values. This regular grid of Z values is called a range map.

Because the origin of the software was in the scanning of human heads with the Cyberware Head & Face Color 3D scanner, the terminology uses the words longitude and latitude. The Head & Face scanner acquires data in a cylindrical fashion. The contour line is vertical and is called the longitude; it is composed of range values spaced at regular intervals. These longitudes and latitudes are also called theta and Y respectively, with the Z value being the depth value.

Other models of Cyberware scanners, such as the LN, MM, Model Shop, Desktop, Whole Body Scanner (Model WB4), and Whole Body Scanner (Model WBX), produce a Cartesian or rectangular image. The only difference from cylindrical images is that the interval between successive contours, or longitudes, changes from angular to linear units of measurement. The Z value is interpreted as a distance to a plane rather than a radius.

You may think of the latitudes and longitudes of a Cartesian image as X and Y respectively. The value of each point on this grid is the Z coordinate.

Most of the commands make no distinction between the two image types. If there is a difference in a command's function between the two image types, then it is noted.

Because the image is represented by a range map, composed of points at regular intervals along each axis, the software maintains the dimensions of these intervals rather than the actual coordinates of each point. This is a great time and space saving technique. It also enables the software to perform some transformations that would be otherwise very complex.

If you keep in your mind, and perhaps occasionally sketch this range map format, it will be much easier to understand the software and commands.

CyScan Basics

Cyberware's CyScan software supports the acquisition, processing and editing of 3D images obtained by Cyberware Rapid 3D Scanners. The scanner itself is an optical and electronic assembly, which captures surface contours of a wide variety of objects. The scanner is always interfaced to a computer that supports the processing of the large volumes of high-resolution data created by the scanner.

Additionally, these data sets, or images, can be manipulated in a wide variety of ways and then be reproduced in both a visual and solid form. Views of the dataset may be rendered on a graphics workstation in point, wireframe or shaded form. Solid reproductions of images may be machined on computer-controlled machine tools from a wide variety of materials using third-party software.

CyScan is a modified version of Cyberware's standard CyScan program. This version is intended to provide the user with a simple, intuitive interface to control the Cyberware digitizer and to process the resulting files.

This manual assumes familiarity with the use of the Windows operating system, the windowing system, a mouse and basic system administration techniques.